Surgery Flashcard Collection 🔪
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What are the most common causative organisms responsible for septic arthritis?
- Staphylococcus aureus (most common pathogen across all age groups)
- Streptococci species
- Neisseria gonorrhoea (especially in young, sexually active patients)
- Escherichia coli (especially in elderly and immunocompromised patients)
Tip: Staphylococci or streptococci species account for approximately 90% of cases.
Link: Septic arthritis
What are the typical symptoms of necrotising fasciitis?
- Pain out of proportion to the clinical findings
- Skin discolouration
- Skin blistering
Link: Necrotising fasciitis
What is the first-line imaging investigation for a suspected scaphoid fracture?
X-ray, with four specific scaphoid views:
- True lateral
- Semi-pronated oblique
- Posteroanterior with the wrist in ulnar deviation
Tip: Acutely, scaphoid fractures are often difficult to identify on X-ray and may not be seen in 20% of cases.
Link: Scaphoid fracture
Describe the surgical management options for testicular torsion.
- Bilateral orchiopexy: if the testis appears red-tinged and viable, it may be sutured to the tunica vaginalis and returned to the scrotum (fixation)
- Orchidectomy: if the testis appears dusky/black and non-viable, it may be removed completely
Tip: Fixation of the testis is performed bilaterally as a prophylactic measure, as the Bell-clapper abnormality may be present bilaterally.
Link: Testicular torsion